This element lets you import comments from another XML file that describe the types and members in your source code. The comments are imported into the XML comments file generated at build time by the compiler.


This element is valid on all types and type members as a top-level or an inline element.

<include file="xmlFilename" path="xpath-filter-expr" />

The file attribute specifies the path to an external XML file. The filename can be a fully qualified or a relative path. If no path is specified on the filename or it is prefixed with a folder name alone, the file is assumed to be in the same folder as the Visual Studio project or a subfolder beneath it. If a relative path is given that starts with ..\, the file is assumed to be in a location relative to the current source code file.

The path element specifies an XPath query used to import one or more elements into the member's XML comments. The structure of the XML file is entirely up to you. A common convention is to use elements with an ID attribute and to look them up with an XPath query such as "rootElement/subElement[@id='idValue']/*". The "/*" at the end of the query pulls in the content of the matching element.


Using this element allows you to keep common sets of XML comments or examples in a shared file as an alternative to repeatedly cutting and pasting the same elements into multiple locations in your source code. This allows you to maintain the comment elements in a single location. When the project is built, the updated comments will automatically be imported into each of the locations where they are referenced. It also allows one person to work on the code while another writes the comments. If the goal is to cut down on duplicated comments, the inheritdoc element may be a better choice.


The XPath query typically uses quote marks to surround an ID value. If you use double quotes to surround the XPath expression, use single quotes to surround the ID value. You can also use single quotes to surround the XPath expression and use double quotes to surround the ID value. Examples of both ways are shown below.

A missing XML file or an ill-formed XPath query will result in a compiler warning being generated. A valid XPath query that fails to locate anything will not generate any warning but will cause missing comments in the resulting XML comments file.


Comments Examples
/// <include file="IncludeComments.xml" path="Comments/IncludeAllExample/*" />
public void IncludeAllExample()
    // This pulls in all comments for the method.

/// <summary>
/// In this example, the <c>include</c> element is used to pull in sections of
/// the comments.
/// </summary>
/// <remarks>
/// <para>As shown in these examples (see source code).  Single and double quotes
/// can be used on the XPath query when nested quotes are required.  The key is to
/// be consistent.</para>
/// <para>This pulls in a single paragraph element.</para>
/// <include file="IncludeComments.xml" path="Comments/Example[@id='paraExample']/para" />
/// <para>This pulls in a all the content of the element.</para>
/// <include file="IncludeComments.xml" path='Comments/Example[@id="AnotherExample"]/*' />
/// </remarks>
/// <conceptualLink target="3de64a85-dafb-4a01-85dc-7f69a76ef790" />
/// <seealso cref="IncludeAllExample"/>
public void IncludeSectionsExample()
Example XML File
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
  <!-- This element's content is imported by element name -->
      This summary came from an external XML file.

      These remarks came from an external XML file.

    <conceptualLink target="db2703b4-12bc-4cf5-8642-544b41002809" />
    <seealso cref="IncludeSectionsExample" />

  <!-- These examples use an ID attribute to identify the element content to import -->
  <Example id="paraExample">
    <para>This paragraph was imported from an external XML file.</para>

    <remarks>This element is not imported as it is not referenced.</remarks>

  <Example id="AnotherExample">
    <para>Paragraph 1</para>
    <para>Paragraph 2</para>

See Also